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Penick CA, Diamond SE, Sanders NJ, Dunn RR (2017) Beyond thermal limits: Comprehensive metrics of performance identify key axes of thermal adaptation in ants. Functional Ecology[PDF]


Cahan SH, Nguyen AD, Stanton-Geddes J, Penick CA, Hernáiz-Hernández Y, DeMarco BB, Gotelli NJ (2017) Modulation of the heat shock response is associated with acclimation to novel temperatures but not adaptation to climatic variation in the ants Aphaenogaster picea and A. rudis. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A. 204:1223-120. [PDF]


Diamond SE, Nichols LM, Pelini SL, Penick CA, Barber GW, Cahan SH, Dunn RR, Ellison AM, Sanders NJ, and Gotelli NJ (2016) Climatic warming destabilizes forest ant communities. Science Advances 2:e1600842. [PDF]

*Featured in Science News.


Karlik J, Epps MJ, Dunn RR, and Penick CA (2016) Life inside an acorn: How microclimate and microbes influence nest organization in Temnothorax ants. Ethology 122:790-797. [PDF]


Brent CS, Penick CA, Trobaugh B, Moore D, and Liebig J (2016) Induction of a reproductive-specific cuticular hydrocarbon pattern by juvenile hormone in the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Chemoecology 26:195-203. [PDF]


Penick CA, Crofton CA, Appler RH, Frank SD, Dunn RR, and Tarpy DR (2016) The contribution of human foods to honey bee diets in a mid-sized metropolis. Journal of Urban Ecology[PDF]

*Featured in the New York TimesNewsweek, and WUNC.


Sasaki T, Penick CA [co-first authors], Shaffer Z, Haight KL, Pratt SC, Liebig J (2016) A simple behavioral model predicts the emergence of complex animal hierarchies. American Naturalist 187:765-775 [PDF]

*Featured on Discover


Science News coverPenick CA, Smith AA (2015) The true odor of the odorous house ant. American Entomologist 61:85-87 [PDF]

*Featured in WIRED and on NPR’s Science Friday.



Penick CA, Savage AM, Dunn RR (2015) Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant diets. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282:20142608 [PDF]

*Featured in The Guardian, Fast Company, and Mental Floss





Penick CA, Brent CS, Dolezal K, Liebig J (2014) Neurohormonal changes associated with ritualized combat and the formation of a reproductive hierarchy in the ant Harpegnathos saltator. Journal of Experimental Biology 217:1496-1503 [PDF]

*Featured in the New York Times and on CBC radio


Penick CA, Ebie J, Moore D (2014) A non-destructive method for identifying the sex of ant larvae. Insectes Sociuax 61:51-55 [PDF]


Diamond SE, Penick CA, Pelini SL, Ellison AM, Gotelli NJ, Sanders NJ, Dunn RR (2013) Using physiology to predict the responses of ants to climatic warming. Integrative and Comparative Biology 53:965-974 [PDF]


Penick CA, Prager SS, Liebig J (2012) Juvenile hormone induces queen development in late-stage larvae of the ant Harpegnathos saltator. Journal of Insect Physiology 58:1643-1649 [PDF]


Penick CA, Copple RN, Mendez RA, Smith AA (2012) The Role of Anchor-Tipped Larval Hairs in the Organization of Ant Colonies. PLoS ONE 7(7): e41595 [PDF]

*Featured on Myrmecos and Buzz Hoot Roar.


Penick CA, Liebig J (2012) Regulation of queen development through worker aggression in a predatory ant. Behavioral Ecology 23:992-998 [PDF]


Penick CA, Trobaugh B, Brent CS, Liebig J (2012) Head-butting as an early indicator of reproductive disinhibition in the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Journal of Insect Behavior 26:23-34 [PDF]


Penick CA, Liebig J, Brent CS (2011) Reproduction, dominance, and caste: endocrine profiles of queens and workers of the ant Harpegnathos saltator. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 197:1063-1071. [PDF]


Holbrook CT, Clark RM, Moore D, Overson RP, Penick CA, Smith AA (2010) Social insects inspire human design. Biology Letters 6:431-433 [PDF]


Penick CA, Tschinkel WR (2008) Thermoregulatory brood transport in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Insectes Sociaux 55:176-182 [PDF]